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Psychiatric Illness

Comprehensive assessment, diagnosis, treatment and follow up facilities are available for all psychiatric illnesses. At OIP, we specialise in rehabilitation services for severe and enduring mental illnesses like Chronic Schizophrenia, Uncontrolled Bipolar Mood Disorder and Severe and Recurrent Depressive Illnesses.

Some of the psychiatric illnesses that are managed are

Eating disorders

Eating disorders are psychological illnesses defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive food intake to the detriment of an individual's physical and mental health. Bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are the most common specific forms of eating disorders. Other types of eating disorders include binge eating disorder. Bulimia nervosa is a disorder characterized by binge eating and purging. Purging can include self-induced vomiting, over-exercising, and the usage of diuretics, enemas, and laxatives. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by extreme food restriction to the point of self-starvation and excessive weight loss.
Relationship Problems

There are times in all relationships when things don't run smoothly. Often, this is because people have conflicting expectations; are distracted with other issues, or have difficulty expressing what is on their minds in ways that other people can really hear and understand what is being said. Sometimes they just don't know what to do to make a good relationship.

Work Stress

In today’s fast paced and extremely competitive world, the nature of work is changing at whirlwind speed. Perhaps now more than ever before, job stress poses a threat to the health of workers and, in turn, to work organizations. It is hence very important that we understand what it entails and what can be done about it.

Work or Occupational stress is stress involving work. According to the current World Health Organization's (WHO) definition, occupational or work-related stress "is the response people may have when presented with work demands and pressures that are not matched to their knowledge and abilities and which challenge their ability to cope.

Another way to define work stress is: The adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them at work." Stress is not an illness – it is a state. However, if stress becomes too excessive and prolonged, mental and physical illness may develop.

As a manager you have a duty to ensure that work does not make your team ill. Understanding how to spot the signs of stress in your team, and then know what to do to reduce stress, will help you achieve this.

OIP offers various tailor made programmes for organizations to help understand work stress and ways to tackle it, through stress management workshops, individual and group counselling sessions and lectures, both on site and off site. Contact us for more details.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia is a mental disorder often characterized by abnormal social behaviour and failure to recognize what is real. Common symptoms include false beliefs, unclear or confused thinking, auditory hallucinations, reduced social engagement and emotional expression, and inactivity. Diagnosis is based on observed behaviour and the person's reported experiences. Symptoms begin typically in young adulthood, and about 0.3–0.7% of people are affected during their lifetime. The disorder is thought to mainly affect the ability to think, but it also usually contributes to chronic problems with behaviour and emotion. People with schizophrenia are likely to have additional conditions, including major depression and anxiety disorders; the lifetime occurrence of substance use disorder is almost 50%. Social problems, such as long-term unemployment, poverty, and homelessness are common. The average life expectancy of people with the disorder is ten to twenty five years less than the average life expectancy. This is the result of increased physical health problems and a higher suicide rate (about 5%).
Mood disorders Depressive disorders

Depression and mania are both disorders of mood. They are also known as affective disorders. Sometimes both can be found in the same patient at different times. If this happens, then the condition is known as bipolar mood disorder or bipolar affective disorder. A few years ago, manic depressive psychosis was the term commonly used.

Frequency: Depression is one of the commonest psychiatric disorders. At least 10% of people experience a depressive episode each year.

What causes depression?

Genetics: 10-20% of the first degree relatives of the patients are affected

Neurochemistry:?

Imbalance of brain chemicals that are used for communication among brain cells can lead to depressive disorders.

Social stress:

“Life events” more common in depressed patients, especially loss events, and particularly during the few months preceding the illness. Chronic social difficulties, lack of confiding relationships and absence of a supportive social network are important mediating factors.

“Learned helplessness” model of depression states that it results from repeated failure to overcome problems by personal effort.

“Cognitive” model by Beck states that depressed mood may result from a habit of interpreting all events in a negative way, and drawing unjustifiably pessimistic and generalised conclusions from minor setbacks ( I can never get it right, and hence I am good for nothing; I don’t look smart so nobody likes me type of comments)

Clinical features:

Feelings of low moods, misery, anxiety, guilt, pessimism, hopelessness, helplessness are very common.

Irritability and hostility are seen.

Impairment in energy, interest, enjoyment, concentration, efficiency and a reduced sexual drive are noted.

In retarded depression patients are mentally and physically slowed down. In agitated depression patients are anxious and overactive, irritable and short tempered. Suicide is always a risk, as sometimes patients feel that they are never going to get better, that they have brought shame on the family and that the only way out is to attempt or even complete suicide. Some patients may develop delusions with depressive thought content and may have paranoid, nihilistic or hypochondriacal themes.

Hallucinations may sometimes be noted consisting usually of voices, criticising the patients or suggesting suicide.

Physical symptoms:

Early morning wakening (some people actually sleep more but are still not refreshed) Diurnal variations of mood (usually worse in the morning and gradually better by evening Appetite is reduced (few actually eat more)

Constipation

Impotence (or lack of or reduced sex drive) Various body pains

What Is Bipolar Disorder?

Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels, and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. Symptoms of bipolar disorder are severe. They are different from the normal ups and downs that everyone goes through from time to time. Bipolar disorder symptoms can result in damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide. But bipolar disorder can be treated, and people with this illness can lead full and productive lives.

People with bipolar disorder experience unusually intense emotional states that occur in distinct periods called "mood episodes." Each mood episode represents a drastic change from a person’s usual mood and behaviour. An overly joyful or overexcited state is called a manic episode, and an extremely sad or hopeless state is called a depressive episode. Sometimes, a mood episode includes symptoms of both mania and depression. This is called a mixed state. People with bipolar disorder also may be explosive and irritable during a mood episode.

Extreme changes in energy, activity, sleep, and behaviour go along with these changes in mood.

ANXIETY DISORDERS:

What is anxiety?

We are all used to feeling anxious from time to time. When we are about to take exams, or facing a job interview, or awaiting results of some important medical tests, we feel worried about what might happen, tense and anxious about how we’ll be affected.

But exactly what does anxiety mean?

Anxiety is a word we use to describe our feelings when we are frightened. So, if something frightens us we get anxious. For example, if you are walking down a street and suddenly a ferocious dog runs up to you, barking madly or snarling and baring its teeth, you will almost certainly feel anxious because you are frightened that the dog will attack you. Of course, in this and many other similar situations you can easily see what has made you anxious and so normally you will tend not to worry about it after it is over. At times the very fact that we are under pressure will spur us on to do our best and rise to the occasion and meet with resounding success. However, sometimes we tend to start worrying over this simple incident and start thinking that there is something wrong with us, and that’s why the dog almost attacked us, although there were several other people in the street. Other times, we find ourselves getting anxious when there is nothing happening to us that should make us feel that way. Most people who seek help because of anxiety are like this. They experience such strong feelings of anxiety that they are unable to cope with their day-to-day life.

Anxiety and panic disorders come in many different forms, and vary in intensity from person to person. Some, such as post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have identifiable origins. More often, the causes for conditions such as social anxiety disorder are elusive at best.

Anxiety and panic disorders may be associated with genetics, changes in neurological or brain chemistry, or disruptive life events. Physical and emotional stress can also lead to anxiety disorders. Note that some medications cause side effects that appear as anxiety disorders, and that even excessive caffeine consumption may cause symptoms consistent with anxiety disorder symptoms. Other physical causes might include dietary deficiencies, low blood sugar, thyroid problems and drug withdrawal.

What is OCD?

OCD stands for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and the patient who suffers from it typically over reacts or gets himself involved in some task. To discuss what OCD is, the condition of the person must be clearly differentiated from other disorders or anxiety and the tension that could occur in his life. More often the person who suffers from this disorder is likely to expose intense perfectionism or infatuation.

It becomes essential that the patient must be rightly diagnosed by the physician either to have or not have this disorder which could be done based on his compulsive actions.

What is OCD – The Obsessions

Some of the uncontrollable impulses or obsessions of the patients who suffer from this disorder include:.

• Needless fear of germs and dirt.

• Fear of causing harm to others or oneself.

• Blindly following the religious ideas.

• Fear that they could miss the things they need.

• Superstitions

• Maintaining an order in every little thing

• Sexual ideas and images that occur from nowhere.

What is OCD – The Compulsions

Compulsions are nothing but the repeated patterns in the behavior. The patient suffering from this disorder finds it extremely hard to keep him from doing things that are unacceptable and unnecessary. Usually such compulsive behavior is mainly due to the fact that they attempt to overcome their obsession this way.

Some of the most common compulsions include:

• Repetition of counting

• Washing hands frequently

• Needless double checking

• Needless disinfecting or cleaning

• Hesitation to touch things

• Ordering or arranging

• Hoarding

It is advised that if you doubt that you or your elative have any of these symptoms, you should consult a psychiatrist. For help, contact OIP.

SUICIDALITY

Suicide, taking your own life, is a tragic reaction to stressful life situations — and all the more tragic because suicide can be prevented. Whether you're considering suicide or know someone who feels suicidal, learn suicide warning signs and how to reach out for immediate help and professional treatment. You may save a life — your own or someone else's.

Some of the most common compulsions include:

Suicide warning signs or suicidal thoughts include:

• Talking about suicide — for example, making statements such as "I'm going to kill myself," "I wish I was dead" or "I wish I hadn't been born"

• Getting the means to commit suicide, such as buying a gun or stockpiling pills

• Withdrawing from social contact and wanting to be left alone

• Having mood swings, such as being emotionally high one day and deeply discouraged the next

• Being preoccupied with death, dying or violence

• Feeling trapped or hopeless about a situation

• Increasing use of alcohol or drugs

• Changing normal routine, including eating or sleeping patterns

• Doing risky or self-destructive things, such as using drugs or driving recklessly

• Giving away belongings or getting affairs in order when there is no other logical explanation for why this is being done

• Saying goodbye to people as if they won't be seen again

It may seem like there's no way to solve your problems and that suicide is the only way to end the pain. But you can take steps to stay safe — and start enjoying your life again.

Contact us and find out how we can help.

PHOBIA

A phobia is an overwhelming and unreasonable fear of an object or situation that poses little real danger but provokes anxiety and avoidance. Unlike the brief anxiety most people feel when they give a speech or take a test, a phobia is long lasting, causes intense physical and psychological reactions, and can affect your ability to function normally at work or in social settings.

Several types of phobias exist. Some people fear large, open spaces. Others are unable to tolerate certain social situations. And still others have a specific phobia, such as a fear of snakes, elevators or flying.

Not all phobias need treatment. But if a phobia affects your daily life, several therapies are available that can help you overcome your fears — often permanently.


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